The Hippodrome, known as the Atmeydan› (horse arena) during the Ottoman era, served as an athletic ground in Byzantine times. It was also used for horse and carriage races, always for the honour of the Emperor. After Sultan Ahmet the First (1609-1616) had the mosque built in his name, this historical ground was named after him, Sultanahmet.

The main section of this park is the place which used to be called At Meydan› (the Horse Arena). This section covers a large area in front of the Blue Mosque. The Alman Çeflmesi (the German Fountain), Dikilitafl, the Burma Sütun (the Twisted Pillar,) and the Örme Sütun (the Woven Pillar) are all included in this section. This is the actual Sultanahmet Park. Byzantine people would organize horse and war carriage contests in this area. The area that is between the Hagia Sophia Mosque and the Blue Mosque was converted to a park during the Republican Era. The Turkish bathhouse of Hagia Sophia and the Tomb of Sultan Ahmet the First are also within this section. The old courthouse near the Hagia Sophia Mosque burnt down in 1933. This area was later reorganized and turned into an green area and a park. The area between the courthouse as it is today, the Firuz A€a Mosque, and the Divanyolu was also opened during the Republican Era and turned into a park. As a result, Sultanahmet Park consists of four main sections:

The Blue Mosque

The Blue Mosque, one of the most famous monuments of the Turkish and Islamic world, is the only mosque built with six minarets. The area where it is located also includes many important works built in earlier periods of ‹stanbul. The mosque silhouette has become the symbol of the city of ‹stanbul. The original name of this mosque is I. Sultan Ahmet Mosque, but it is also known as the “Blue Mosque” owing to the glazed tiles decorating its interior   The mosque, built between the years 1609 and 1616, was located in a large scale complex which included  social and cultural structures such as a bazaar, a bath, a cookhouse, a hospital, schools, a caravansasaray.  Unfortunately, these have not been preserved. The architect of the mosque was Mimar Mehmet A€a. The architect of the mosque was an apprentice of Koca Sinan, the great architect of Turkish classical architecture, and he applied a plan formerly used by his master but on a greater scale. He decorated the interior side of the mosque painstakingly, like a jeweler. The actual entrance to the Blue Mosque is at the side of the Roman era Hippodrome. The interior courtyard is surrounded by an outer courtyard. These and the main structure are situated on a platform. When you enter through one of the three entrance doors, you will notice the painting, glazed tiles and stained glass that supplement the outer view. The interior  is  one large space which rises above four large pillars which support broad and sharp arches. The interior of the mosque is embellished with over 20,000 marvelous pieces of glazed ‹znik tiles. The upper sides of the glazed tiles and interior sides of all domes are embellished by ornate painting. The pulpit, decorated with marvelous carving, is near the altar past the main entrance. On the other side, the lodge of the sultans can be seen in the form of a balcony. The dome, with a diameter of 23,5 m and a height of 43 meters,  is illuminated by 260 windows . The single domed tomb of Sultan Ahmet, who ordered the building of the mosque, and the madrasah are to the south of the mosque towards Hagia Sophia.. It is said that there are 16 minaret symbols (flerefe) on the six minarets of the mosque because Sultan Ahmet was the 16th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. The minarets are another example of the Turkish style. Spiral stairs lead to the minaret symbols. The  domes and the minarets are coated with lead. The crescents on their tips are made of copper coated with gold.

The Hagia Sophia Museum

Sultanahmet Square, Eminönü

Tel: (0212) 522 17 50-528 45 00

Everyday except Monday 09.30-16.30

Hagia Sophia is a masterpiece with a synthesis of the Occident and the Orient,  a unique example of architectural applications, and  is considered to be the one and only example in this respect.  It is among the most important monuments have survived to today, now belonging to the history of architecture.  Hagia Sophia was used as  a church for 916 years and as a mosque for 481 years. It has been a museum since 1935.

Byzantine historians claimed that the first Hagia Sophia was built during the reign of Emperor Constantinus the 1st (324-337). This structure, which had  the plan of a basilica and a wooden roof, burnt down during a rebellion. No remains of the structure have survived up to now.

Emperor Theodosius the 2nd had the building reconstructed for the second time and reopened it in 415. This structure, which also had the plan of a basilica, burnt down in 532 during the Nika rebellion. Some remains from this structure were uncovered during the excavations carried out in 1936. These are footboards, pillars, crests and other  architectural items.

Emperor Justinianus (527-565) wished to construct a church larger than Hagia Sophia and had Isiodoroos from Miletos and Anthemios from Tralles build the Hagia Sophia that we see today.  The construction of Hagia Sophia was started on the 23rd of December 532 and was completed on the 27th of December 537. It consists of two lateral rooms, apse, and outer and interior narthexes. The interior room dimension is 100 x 70 m and is covered with a dome with a height of 55 m and a diameter of 30.31 m.

The mosaics of Hagia Sophia as well as its architecture are of great importance. The oldest mosaics are those that are decorated with golden geometrical and flower figures in the lateral rooms and interior narthexes. The figured mosaics were made in the 9th and 12th centuries. These can be seen above the Emperor’s Gate, on the apse, on the exit door, and on the upper floor gallery. Hagia Sophia experienced many restorations during the Turkish era, which started with the conquest of ‹stanbul. The surroundings of the altar include the most beautiful examples of the Turkish art of glazed tiles and calligraphy. There are sheets on which Ottoman Sultan wrote and that are placed on the side walls of the altar. Sultan’s tombs, the fountain of Sultan I. Mahmud, the school, the soup kitchen, the library, the prayer platform of Sultan Abdülmecid, and the prayer hours calculation room are the examples of the Turkish era in Hagia Sophia and they constitute the most beautiful examples of the classical Ottoman tomb tradition in terms of their architecture, glazed tiles and interior design.

Binbirdirek Cistern

Binbirdirek Cistern (The Cistern of a thousand and   one Pillars)

Binbirdirek Mah. ‹mran Öktem Sk. Sultanahmet Square

Tel : (0212) 518 10 01

Every day 09.00-20.00

Binbirdirek cistern, the second biggest water reservoir of ‹stanbul was built in the 4th century. Senator Philoxenus built his palace on the Hippodrome and built this cistern in order to meet the water needs of the palace. The German voyager R. Lubenau, who visited ‹stanbul in the 16th century, reported that there were thread workers working in the cistern. However, there are also others that claim that the cistern

contained water in the 18th century. As there had not been water in the cistern for a long time, it was used by thread workerss as a workshop in the 19th century. Some of the arches were pierced and openings that let light inside

were opened. Binbirdirek Cistern is surrounded with a thick wall and its dimensions are 64, by 56 by 40 m. The brackets, each of which has 16 lines of 14 pillars with a space of 3.75 m  between are joined with arches. The pillars and heads were designed for this cistern and they were not collected from other structures. The arches on the heads are joined with opposite stretchers. Only the round holes on them can be seen today. The name of the cistern in the Turkish era may have come from the words “a thousand and one” which represented multiplicity.  However, some people claim that these words may apply also  to the overlapped pillar bodies. The lower sections of the pillars are buried in the ground to about 5 meters. The total height of the brackets is 12.5 meters. The eighteen holes on the left side of the entrance of the cistern were filled in at somem point in time.

The Basilica Cistern

Yerebatan Cad. Sultanahmet

Tel : (0212) 522 12 59

Everyday: 09.00 – 17.30

This is the biggest and most spectacular cistern in the city. The cistern’s entrance is in the small building to the west of Hagia Sophia. The ceiling of the cistern, which looks like a forest of pillars, is covered with bricks and crosswise arches. It was named the Basilica Cistern because of a basilica which used to be in the vicinity. It was built during the reign of Justinanus the 1st (527-565)  to provide water to the palaces in the vicinity. The pillars are decorated with

some plain and Corinthian-style pillar heads. There are 336 pillars in 12 rows of 28 pillars, and their dimensions are 170 x 70 meters.  The level of water changed in accordance with the changes in the seasons. Water was distributed outside through pipes on different levels on the eastern wall. The marks left by different levels of water can be seen on the pillars. The floor was cleaned during the big restoration of 1984, unearthing from one meter of mud the original floor of bricks and marble blocks with the figure of Medusa’s head.

Sokollu Mehmet Paşa Mosque

This mosque, which holds priceless riches of the Muslim world, was built in 1571 by Mimar Sinan.  It was dedicated to Esmihan Sultan, the daughter of Selim the 2nd and the wife of Sokullu Mehmet Pafla, the grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire. The interior of the mosque is decorated with glazed ‹znik tiles. The building grounds include several additional religious units and the courtyard of the mosque is surrounded by madrasahs. These buildings are used as Quran classes today. The front section of the mosque includes the lodge and past this section is the Uzbek Mevlevi Lodge. The back of the mosque used to hold an Ottoman cemetery, which is under protection today. The mosque, which has a capacity of 700 people, has never been damaged by any natural disasters, fires, etc. since it was built and it has always been open to religious services throughout its history. The glazed tiles inside the mosque were applied on the pulpit cone, the section that goes from the altar to the ceiling, window facades and the triangular pendantives supporting the dome in a way which has not been seen in any other mosque. The glazed ‹znik tiles inside the madrasah in the lodge also have unique properties.



The Constantinople hippodrome was an area used for chariot races during the Byzantine Period. It was first built at the beginning of the 3rd century AD, during the reign of Emperor Septimius Severus; In the 4th century AD, it was transformed into a more magnificent structure by Emperor Constantine I.

The hippodrome was also used for other public events, such as parades, executions, and condemnation of the emperor’s enemies. In the process following the Fourth Crusades at the beginning of the 13th century, the hippodrome lost its function after its unique structures and works of art were plundered.

The palace was established at the southeast end of the peninsula, behind the Hippodrome and Hagia Sophia. There is a series of rooms reserved for scholars, this tradition continued in Topkapı Palace as well. The total area of the palace is more than 19,000 square meters (200,000 square feet). The main entrance to the palace was from the Halki Gate in the ceremony area called “Augustaion”. The Augustaion was located to the south of Hagia Sophia, where the main street of the city, Mese Caddesi, began. To the east of the area was Magnaura, which served first as the Senate building and then as the University, and to the west were the Million Stones and the Zeuxippos Baths. To the south just after the Halki Gate were the palace guards’ barracks (Scholae Palatinae). After these buildings, there was the reception hall, and then the Daphne Palace, which was used as a royal settlement in the early Byzantine period. The Emperor’s bedroom contained the Octagon. A corridor started from Daphne and ended with the Emperor’s Lodge (kathisma) in the Hippodrome.

The Million Stone was considered the starting point of all Ancient Roman roads that reached the city of Constantinople during the Byzantine Empire, and also the “zero point” in calculating the distance of other world cities to this city. It serves the same function as the Milliarium Aureum monument in Rome, Italy.

During the Byzantine capital gaining its identity in the 4th century by Emperor Constantine I.
It is thought that it was built together with many magnificent monuments.

The work, which we refer to as the Million Stone today, was one of the important examples of Tetrapylon architecture in Roman culture with its four gates facing four directions and a dome structure sitting on four columns rising above the intersecting roads at this point. On its dome, there were sculptures and reliefs from the period that increased the magnificence of the monument. During the expansion works of the aqueducts carrying water to Istanbul in the 19th century, it gradually began to disappear and became the only column today.

Basilica Cistern
The Basilica Cistern is a closed water cistern built in 526-527 to meet the water needs of the city in Istanbul.

Due to the many marble columns rising from the water, it is called the Basilica Palace among the people. It is also called Basilica Cistern because there was a basilica on the cistern before.

Built by the Byzantine emperor Justinianus, the cistern was connected to Hadrian’s waterways, which met the water needs of the areas between the first and second hills of the city.
was connected. Sarayburnu after the conquest of Istanbul by the Ottomans
and served as a water distribution center around the Garden Gate; Although it was not used after the Ottomans established their own water facilities in the city, it became a physical symbol representing the neighborhood in which it was located.

Hagia Sophia, formerly known as Holy Wisdom Church and Hagia Sophia Museum, or today officially known as Hagia Sophia-i Kebîr Câmi-i Şerîfi (Holy Great Hagia Sophia Mosque), is a mosque and former basilica, cathedral and museum located in Istanbul.

It was a basilica planned patriarchal cathedral built by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I between 532-537 in the old city center of Istanbul’s historical peninsula. After the conquest of Istanbul by the Ottomans in 1453, II. It was converted into a mosque by Mehmed. 1934 by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
It was converted into a museum with the Decree of the Council of Ministers published in 1999, excavation and renovation works were started and it served as a museum from 1935 to 2020.

In 2020, the status of a museum was canceled and the status of a mosque was given. Hagia Sophia is a domed basilica type building that combines the central plan in terms of architecture, and the dome passage and carrier
It is considered as an important turning point in the history of architecture with its system features. For Christians, it is a touristic and spiritual center of attraction, as well as being both a symbolic and an axis.

The word “Aya” in the name of Hagia Sophia means “holy”. The word “Sophia” comes from the Greek word sophos, meaning “wisdom”. Therefore, the name “Hagia Sophia” means “Divine Wisdom” or “Divine Wisdom” in reference to Jesus of Nazareth and is considered one of the three attributes of God in Christian theology.

It is stated that approximately 10,000 workers worked in the construction of Hagia Sophia, which was directed by Isidoros of Miletus and Antemius of Tralles, and Emperor Justinian I spent a great fortune for this work. A feature of this very old building is that some of the columns, doors and stones used in its construction were brought from earlier structures and temples. During the Byzantine Empire, Hagia Sophia had a great wealth of “sacred relics”. One of these relics was the 15-meter-high silver iconostasis. The church of the Patriarch of Constantinople and the center of the Eastern Orthodox Church for 1000 years, Hagia Sophia was founded in 1054 by Patriarch Michael I, Pope IX. by Leo
He witnessed his excommunication, and this event in general led to the “Schisma”, that is, one of the most important events in the history of Christianity, East and West.
It is considered the beginning of the separation of the churches.

Hipodrom, Grekçe Hippos (At) ve dromos (Yol, yarış, yarış pisti) kelimelerinden oluşmuş bir bileşik isim olup at ve araba yarışlarının yapıldığı yer olarak tanımlanmaktadır. II.Wilhelm tarafından İstanbul gezisi anısına yaptırılan Kayzer Wilhelm Çeşmesi’ne doğru yürüyüşte bu çeşmenin arkasında Carceres yani Hipodrom’ un anıtsal giriş kapısı yer alırmış.

Quadriga da Hıristiyanlık dininden nasibini almış. 4 at 4 İncil yazarını, araba da Hıristiyanlık dinini temsil edermiş. Tanrı’nın arabası Quadriga’nın sürücüsü ise İsa olarak yorumlanırmış. Bu araba örnek alınarak yapılan bir yakın çağ uygulaması için Berlin, Bradenburg Kapısı üzerindeki quadriga’ya bakılabilir.

Sakız Adası’ ndan İstanbul’a getirilmiş. Günümüzde Venedik San Marco Meydanı’ndaki kilisede saklanan araba… Quadriga, Napolyon tarafından buradan Paris’ e götürülmüş ve 18 yıl süre ile
Champs Elysées’de kalmış, sonra da Venedik’e iade edilmiş.

Obelisk, which is an Ancient Egyptian work, is also called the Theodosius Obelisk, although it is generally called only the Obelisk among the people. According to some, it was erected by Pharaoh Thutmosis the 3rd in the Karnak Temple in memory of his victories in Asia, and according to others, in memory of the 30th anniversary of his rule (1400s BC). The work, which is thought to have been around 30 meters in original height, was made of red granite stone. When we want to come to the story of the Obelisk’s relocation to Roman Istanbul, we have to go back to the 4th century AD. The son of Emperor Constantine II, who made Constantinople the capital city, had the Obelisk brought to the city of Alexandria. To some historians
According to him, his aim was to move to Istanbul, but he could not succeed, according to some, his aim was to plant it there anyway.

Although it is not known exactly by whom and how it was brought to Istanbul, according to the inscriptions on the pedestal of the Obelisk, it was kept on the ground for a certain period of time. Some sources say that Emperor Julianus, 200
He writes that he had special ships built for this work and that the Obelisk was brought to Istanbul from Alexandria in this way.

Known as the Serpent Column or the Burmese Column in foreign languages, the structure was also called a three-headed dragon or a bronze dragon in Turkish history.

Only the body of the column remained from the monument, which was built in the form of three bronze snakes entwining with each other. The Serpent Column was first built in BC. It was erected in the Delphi Temple in Greece as a victory monument after the war of the Greek allies against the Persians in 478.

The material used in the construction of the column was obtained by melting the weapons captured in the war, and the names of 32 Greek allied cities that participated in the war were written on its body. When the column was first built, it was the base of a three-legged golden cauldron, but this golden cauldron was later looted while it was in the Delphi temple. Like Çemberlitaş, the Serpent Column was brought to Istanbul by the Roman Emperor to decorate the city at the beginning of the fourth century AD. At the beginning of the 18th century, all three snakeheads were severed, although the exact cause is unknown. A fragment of one of the broken snakeheads was found during the excavations carried out during the restoration of Hagia Sophia in 1848. This snakehead fragment, whose lower jaw was found to be broken, is now exhibited in the Archaeological Museum. During the excavations carried out by British archaeologists around the column in 1855 and 1927, waterways were found, revealing that the column could have been used as a fountain.

The Knitted Column, which is 32 meters high, was built in a form that tapers towards the hill. Normally, there was an obelisk in the middle of the hippodromes built during the Roman period. However, a second obelisk was erected at the hippodrome in Istanbul to glorify the city, similar to the Circus Maximus hippodrome in Rome, which has two obelisks. It is not known who erected the Knitted Column, which is thought to have been erected in the fourth century BC. The inscription on the marble footing under the column facing the Blue Mosque reads: “This four-sided high monument, eroded by time, has been transformed by the Emperor Constantine, the pride of the Empire, into something better than what we have seen before. The Colossus of Rhodes surprised; This column covered with bronze aroused admiration.

From this information, the column of Constantine VII. It is understood that it was repaired during the time of Porpyrogennetos (913-959). During this repair, the body of the Knitted Column and the three sides of the footrest were decorated with gilded bronze plates. During the crusades in 1204, those coming from Western Europe mistook them for gold while they were plundering the city and took the brass around the column.

The Binbirdirek Cistern, also known as the Filoksenos Cistern, is the second largest cistern in Istanbul. According to ancient Byzantine sources, it was built in the 4th century. The 3584 m2 cistern with 224 columns inside has dried up over time and has been used as a workshop since the 16th century. The columns in the cistern are made up of two overlapping bodies, and there are truncated pyramid-shaped capitals on top of them.

It is known that the Greek letters engraved on the column bodies are the signs of the stonemasons who worked in the construction of the cistern and worked on the columns. It has been cleaned in recent years and is connected to the road passing by by a gallery. The cistern, which has been transformed into an easily visited, interesting and beautiful place to visit, measures 64 x 56 meters. It was built by the Roman senator Philoxenos during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Constantine I in the 4th century.

212 of the 224 original columns have survived to the present day. The brick vaults of the space surrounded by thick walls, the double columns that carry them, superimposed with a partition, and the unworked capitals display interesting images. Small sales aisles, cafe and exhibition areas, and the hollow section in the middle of the cistern, where the original height of the columns can be seen, were built during the renovation.

The Şerefiye Cistern or Theodosius Cistern is one of the many Byzantine period cisterns in the historical Peninsula. Considering the historical topography of Constantinople in the Byzantine period, the building is located south of the Ancient Mese road, southeast of the Constantine Forum, and west of the Binbirdirek Cistern. Pipeline on the oak
It is among the cisterns that can benefit from the line


The complex of a large cloistered courtyard (excavated in 1935-1938) and an adjacent cantilevered hall (excavated in 1952-1954) is still the most important discovery made at the site of the Great Palace.

The original floor of the cloistered courtyard is a carefully crafted mosaic floor whose subject, style and quality is virtually unmatched in late antique and Byzantine mosaic art. The surviving mosaics with mythological, rural life, hunting and hippodrome scenes are exhibited in the Mosaic Museum (partly in their original places), which was established on the site of this magnificent palace-like building and opened at the end of the 1980s. However, construction activities at the site began long before the mosaic cloistered courtyard and the apse hall were built: a two-storey arched structure made of brick that supports a marble path leading to a building whose remains of the oldest lines have been identified below the apse hall, a high terrace possibly dating from the same period. A cistern made of bricks, cut by the foundations of the cloistered courtyard, was found under the portico courtyard.

Based on the latest research, judging by the sherds and tiled bricks found under the mosaics, and the greenstone level lines used in the construction of the buildings, it has been determined that the cloistered courtyard and hall date from the late 6th or early 7th century (the reign of Maurice, Phocas, or Heraclius).

Magnaura Muhtemelen Latince: Magna Aula, “Büyük Salon”, Konstantinopolis’te bulunan büyük bir bina. Büyük Saray’a ana giriş, “Augustaion” adı verilen tören alanında Halki Kapısı’ndandı. Augustaion, Aya Sofya’nın güneyinde yer alıyordu, burada şehrin ana caddesi Mese Caddesi başlıyordu. Alanın doğusunda önce Senato binası olarak sonra Üniversite olarak hizmet gören Magnaura bulunuyordu. Üç ana nef üzerine bir bazilika şeklindeydi. Bina, sırasıyla taç odası, kabul binası olarak kullanılmıştır. 849 yılında Sezar Bardas tarafından binada bir okul (ekpaideutērion) kurulmuştur.

Sedir carpet and kilim shop on Mimar Mehmet Ağa Street Byzantium
One of the most important and interesting ruins from the period can be seen.
is the place. Two buildings constructed at different levels in the basement of the shop.
There are ruins. On a higher level, an earlier Byzantine terrace
A well-preserved fifth or sixth century
There is a floor mosaic with a geometric pattern. The pattern of the mosaic is late Roman and
common for both secular and religious buildings in early Byzantine times
shows the features. Therefore, the mosaic itself adorns
It doesn’t help us determine which building it is. a church or
it could be home. If it is a house, one of the possibilities is that the mosaic is dated to II. of Theodosius
It belongs to the palace of his sister Marina. This early fifth-century
the palace residence was in the first part of Byzantium, probably in the east of the Great Palace.
east and close to the tzykanisterion. From the palace of the marina, the empire
The estate is mentioned as a residence, but in the ninth century:
The future emperor Basil on the European side of the Bosphorus (now
Beşiktaş) after killing Emperor Michael III in Hagios Mamas Palace.
Then, passing through the palace of the Marina, you reach one of the gates of the Great Palace.
reached. Go down another ladder and light the floor above the level of the mosaic.
about 5 m below (presumably because of the building with mosaic floor)
A flat vaulted corridor is entered. building typical
eleventh or twelfth century, based on “hidden vein” brickwork.
It can be dated as from the beginning. On the south wall of the hall
There is a section containing ayazma. “Mother of God” in “Hodegetria” type
It is depicted on the face of the recessed wall in the (guiding) cell. The same bi-
Remains of another building showing the na technique are to the east of the 3D clinic,
It can be found on an empty lot across Admiral Tafdil Street. Mary
The presence of this fresco of Ana and the treatment of the holy spring, the hall, especially the blindness.
It is a part of Hodegoi Monastery, which is also famous for its effective healing spring.
gives the idea that it could be a part of it. According to medieval Russian pilgrims, the monastery
It was on the right side of a street going east from Hagia Sophia and Nea
The sea wall from the Hodegetria Church to the Eklesia and Boukoleon Palace
It was possible to walk to the west, leaving it on the left. to the legend
Pulcheria (399-453), daughter of Emperor Arcadius, allegedly
Icon of “Mother of God and Child” made by the Apostle Luke
He had a church built to protect it. The eleventh on icons of this type
Meryem, who became popular after the century, caught the attention of the beholders.
directs it to the child. The Virgin Mary is the eternal protector of the city.
For this reason, the Hodegetria icon was often carried in Byzantine processions. im-
parator VIII. Michael Palaeologus entered the city in victory on August 12, 1261.
He carried this famous icon, which he wanted back from the Latins. Also 1453′
It was also carried to this icon in the last Byzantine war in BC. Turks captured the city
It is said that the icon was destroyed when they were painted.

NAKKAŞ Cistern

The place where two continents, East and West meet… Byzantium of the Greeks, Constantinople of the Eastern Romans, Istanbul of the Turks… As an expression of its stance in the field of tourism, NAKKAŞ has its store in Sultanahmet, the heart of the capital of the empires. It takes visitors deep into history in the 6th century cistern located under it. It is a good example of how much cultural heritage can be protected with a conscious restoration. It brings together the 1400-year-old Byzantine Cistern, which it has completely restored to its original form, with the cultural life of the city without any profit motive. In the past years, local and foreign artists had the opportunity to exhibit their products with the activities carried out under the brand of “Nakkaş Cistern Art Gallery”. Famous ensembles gave various concerts.

Still in the cistern, the Hippodrome exhibition of old Istanbul in the 1200s is meeting with the audience.

The Sfendon Wall, located in the Historic Peninsula and resisting time for approximately 1700 years, awaits the attention of local and foreign visitors. The wall, which bears traces of the Roman Empire, was built in the hippodrome area, which was inspired by the Circus Maximus in Rome in 200 years, and was enlarged by Constantine between 324-337. as “Sfendon”
The semi-circular end of the hippodrome, called the hippodrome, was placed on a massive infrastructure consisting of vaulted galleries and walls, allowing 30-40 thousand people to take part in the hippodrome at the same time. Istanbul, where Sultanahmet Vocational and Technical Anatolian High School is located.
Sfendon Wall, one of the oldest ruins, is one of the few historical ruins left from that day in the area also known as the Horse Square.

The Little Hagia Sophia Mosque is the mosque in Istanbul’s Little Hagia Sophia district. The church was built by the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Emperor Justinian I and his wife Theodora between 527-536 under the name of Aya Sergios and Bachos Church. Beyazit Topkapi Palace Darussaade
It was converted into a mosque during the reign of his master Hüseyin Ağa.

Block stones of 3 meters by 1.8 meters were used in its foundation. It has an 8-cornered main dome. It is known as the oldest Byzantine Period structure in Istanbul. In the southern part of the garden, there is a large garden with 24 rooms and Hüseyin Ağa Madrasa with a fountain in the middle. It was restored by the Madrasa Yesevi Foundation and put into service of Turkish handicrafts. Near it is the Kesikbaş Hüseyin Ağa tomb. The building underwent two repairs in 1836 and 1956, various lead and plasters were renewed, and its single minaret was significantly repaired.

According to the legends, the church takes its name from an event that took place when Anastasius I was the Roman Emperor of Nature. During the reign of Anastasius I, a social uprising took place against the emperor, and Justinian I was involved in this rebellion. Thereupon, Justinian I was sentenced to death by the Emperor, however, on the night before the verdict would take place, St. Sergius and St. Bacchus entered the dream of Emperor Anastasius I and testified in favor of Justinian I. This dream or vision affects the emperor to such an extent that he rethinks the fairness of the verdict. Anastasius I abandons his decision and forgives Justinian I. After Justinian I ascended the throne, by Anastasius I
In order to pay his debt of gratitude to the Saints who made the decision to spare his life, he had the church built, which currently serves as the Little Hagia Sophia Mosque, in the name of St. Sergius and St. Bacchus as a votive church.

This small mosque was built by the famous Ottoman architect Sinan in 1553 and was originally part of a larger building group (Kapı Ağası Mahmut Ağa Complex) that included a madrasa (no remains), a primary school (children’s school), a fountain and a cemetery.

The mosque rises on a high stone infrastructure consisting of four vaulted rooms. Since the building is located on the shore of two previously constructed terraces (16 and 11 m above sea level), the lower infrastructure section is visible from both sides. It has recently been suggested that the infrastructures are older than the mosque and were built during the Byzantine period. If this
if true, the surviving vaulted rooms may have moved the floors of a Byzantine-era building in the Great Palace. The infrastructures are located almost in an east-west direction, suggesting the possibility of this building being a church, but this is not certain because the civil-looking buildings in the palace area, especially the courtyard with mosaic cloisters, were also oriented in the same way. The remains of brick and stone walls, dating from the Byzantine period and forming the eastern side of the mosque’s garden wall, seem to be a continuation of the still-extant wreck of Phocas’s wall. Considering this, the infrastructures of the mosque are located just inside the Palace, as this late tenth century fortification wall indicates.

Probably in the 5th century II. It was built by Theodosius. Ottoman sultan II. When Mehmed entered the city in 1453, the palace was standing but in ruins. The ruins of the palace were partially demolished in 1873 for the construction of the railway to Sirkeci Station.

Bukoleon Palace was used and restored by Justinian I, who lived here with his wife Theodora before he came to power. After Justinian I became emperor, he included this place in the Great Palace complex. The palace was extensively restored during the reign of Theophios. II. Nikiforos also strengthened the sea front of the Bukoleon Palace with fortification walls, starting from the Lighthouse Tower, during the construction of the Great Palace complex with defensive walls. He also had additional structures built here, such as a warehouse.

Today, a significant part of the ruins on the sea walls of the palace belong to the 10th century. IMM Department of Cultural Heritage has started its work to transform the Boukoleon palace into cultural and artistic spaces.